Science melas in connection with national science campaign
According to the most recent findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global warming due to climate change has been clearly linked to human activities, such as greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion (carbon dioxide), livestock production (methane), and extensive use of wood stoves in rural areas (black carbon). One of the most serious consequences of global warming is its impact on human health and welfare. This includes increases in vector borne diseases (malaria, dengue fever), heat waves, smog production, loss of surface water resources, and escalating incidences of severe storm events and changing rainfall patterns, causing major flooding in some regions, while creating drought-like conditions in other parts of the world. We must now shift our sole attention from mitigating climate change through initiatives taken in developed countries to dealing with adapting to its long term trends, especially in many developing countries, where climate change impacts are expected to be most severe within the next twenty to thirty years.
When it comes to generating a visual representation of important socio-economic parameters for rural Pakistan, such as poverty, literacy, crime or access to internet, the picture is rather blank. Datasets exist in disparate jurisdictions, scattered across many departments, and are often in registers and lists that do not contain geo-coordinates. This state of affairs discourages evidence-based policy interventions, and severely limits the effectiveness of expensive GIS projects undertaken by many organizations.
In this talk, I will explain why relevant socio-economic datasets, such as the population census, have not been mapped properly even years after of their generation. Then it will explain how this bottleneck may be removed, by identifying the spatial references contained in those datasets, and building their integrated maps. In this respect, it will also cover the importance of a “mauza” (revenue estate) for rural mapping, and then provide an overview of our recent pilot project to demonstrate a cost-effective and scalable methodology to build a mauza map for District Jhelum. Our methodology consisted of stitching together thousands of pieces of British era village maps, and then registering them with satellite imagery for geo-referencing. Finally, talk will show the utility of this mauza map in generating spatial visualizations of important socio-economic parameters for the district.
Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field which has brought marvels not only in solid-state device industry rather various bio-medical applications like gene sensing, DNA sequencing and bio-detection etc. owe a lot to this interdisciplinary research. It’s because of bio-nanotechnology that we are able to bring the sensitivity of current bio-sensing platforms down to the molecular level. This presentation will give you an overview of the techniques as well as the latest developments in the field of Bio-Nanotechnology. Both aspects of the presentation will be highlighted by examples of various nano-systems relevant for biomedical applications such as nanoparticle synthesis, formation of nanostructured surfaces, interaction of proteins as well as bio-membranes with drugs and insight into DNA and drug delivery systems.
"The movie presents the extraordinary figure of Abdus Salam, who not only was an outstanding scientist but also a generous humanitarian and a valuable person. His rich and busy life was an endless quest for symmetry, that he pursued in the universe of physical laws and in the world of human beings." (ICTP)
The talk is designed to provide basic information about inventions and patents. The aim is to communicate the importance of inventors, inventions and patents through discussion and concrete examples. It provides a roadmap for invention and encourages people to invent and patent their creations. So that the intellectual properties of individuals and organizations could be protected against the breach of intellectual property rights.
The 10th Astrofest marks World Space Week and includes a popular lecture on introduction to astronomy following live observation of astronomical attractions through a powerful telescope. The live observation is aided by Pakistan's leading amateur astronomer Umair Asim's commentary. The falakyati mela also coincides with the International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN).
Directions to reaching Kot Radha Kishan
Directions to Kot Ridha Kishan from travellers from Lahore can be found on this website.
For registration to this event, visit the Registration page.
Let there be Light: An Overview of Solid State Laser Technology (Dr. Tayyab Imran)
From Theodore Maiman’s small ruby laser to ultrafast Ti:Sapphire laser technology, a solid state laser technology revolution, earning important roles in scientific research, engineering, medicine, materials working, and a host of other applications.
The Use of Lasers in Opthalmology (Dr. Nadeem H. Butt)
Laser Assisted Pump-probe Studies of Atoms (Dr. Aslam Baig)
Laser assisted spectroscopic technique have been exploited to study the highly excited states of atoms; a pump probe experiment. In this technique, at least two dye lasers are required; the first dye laser serves as an exciting laser whereas the second laser serves as an ionizing laser. A Nd:YAG laser SHG (533nm, 500 mJ) and THG (355 nm, 200 mJ) is used to pump the TDL-90 dye laser (line width »0.08 cm-1) and locally fabricated dye lasers (line width »0.25 cm-1) for multi-step or multi-photon excitation/ ionization of atoms. The ions are detected either in a thermionic diode ion detector or in an atomic beam apparatus. We have also utilized the polarization properties of the laser beams to measure the photoionization cross sections of the excited states of atoms. A few examples of the spectra will be presented in addition to the latest experimental results on the photoionization of atoms from the Free Electron Laser Source (FLASH).
Registration is free of cost but required. To register visit this link.
Graphene is an emerging material, like a rising star on the horizon of physics. Acclaiming the Nobel Prize in physics in 2010, the two dimensional crystal continues to surprise us with new physics as well as new applications that are destined to reach the commercial sphere.
In this lecture series, we have invited Pakistan's two most distinguished scientists to discuss the fundamental physics. The understanding of graphene has opened up new doors of inquiry. What immediately catches our attention is the emergence of new physics: relativistic quantum effects, which previously, are only the ambit of high energy physicists. With graphene, for example, it is now possible to mimick these high energy effects on the tabletop. This lecture series aims at:
- describing relativistic quantum mechanics,
- understanding how the charge carriers in graphene are massless Dirac fermions,
- understanding the electronic structure of this two dimensional material,
- unravelling some of its exciting transport and structural properties, and
- appreciating the role of disorder in graphene.
The schedule of the lecture series is as follows.
|Friday, 20 May 2011||3-4 pm||KS 1||What is graphene?|
|4-5 pm||RD 1||Introduction, Free particle, Dirac Equation (Derivation), Dirac Algebra, Dirac Equation in the presence of electromagnetic field.|
|5:30-6:30 pm||KS 2||Electronic structure of graphene (part 1)|
|Saturday, 21 May 2011||10-11 am||RD 2||Dirac Chiral representation and Dirac Equation in 2- components form; prediction of magnetic moment of electron and spin. Dirac equation for Hydrogen like atoms (exact solution) and spin – orbit splitting of energy levels.|
|11 am - 12 noon||KS 3||Electronic structure of graphene (part 2)|
|12 - 2 pm||Lunch and prayer break|
|2-3 pm||RD 3||Lorentz invariance of Dirac equation, Dirac bilinears (their transformation properties under Laurentz Transformation and parity); Particle current. Hole theory and existence of positron.|
|Sunday, 22 May 2011||10-11 am||RD 4||Dirac equation in (1 + 2) dimensions and its relevance to Graphene. Inequivalent representations of Dirac Gamma-matrices (a feature of odd number of space – time dimensions). Role of parity in (1 + 2) dimensions and how it can be used for defining conserved chiral currents.|
|11 am - 12 noon||KS 4||
Electronic structure of graphene (part 3)
|12-1 pm||Lunch and prayer break|
|1-2 pm||RD 5||
In wake of current quakes, tsunami and consequent damage to nuclear power reactors and leakage of nuclear radiation, hundreds of thousands of Japanese are left struggling for survival. It has combined a natural disaster and the backfire from a technological monster. In this interview we will ask our learned guest about the scientific causes of earthquakes and tsunamis and how these natural disasters effect nuclear installations? What are the preventive measures against nuclear radiation fallout? As Pakistan is equally vulnerable to natural disasters and a country with many nuclear installations, so will also discuss the national context.
How cell fates are established and how identities of different cell types are maintained during development of multi-cellular eukaryotes are questions of extreme biological significance at the heart of development. A single-celled zygote undergoes many rounds of mitotic divisions which ultimately lead to generation of over 200 different specialized cell types in human body during development. Although, each cell type contains same basic genetic information (DNA), yet their identity is different from one another which are maintained throughout development. It is known that differential gene expression programs lead to different cell lineages and each cell type remembers its identity due to maintenance of cell type specific gene expression program referred to as transcriptional cellular memory. Transcriptional memory involves changes in the chromatin state of lineage specific genes; changes that can persist through DNA replication and mitosis, which means they are inherited from mother to daughter cells. Such heritable changes are called epigenetic modifications and can be covalent marks on DNA and/or histones, and therefore would not alter the basic genetic information in a cell. However, epigenetic changes may either activate or silence the expression of lineage specific genes and set the stage for differential gene expression among different cell type. This explains how cells with same DNA can acquire different identity which is maintained through epigenetic inheritance during development. In Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies), genetic analyses have uncovered two groups of genes, the Polycomb Group (PcG) and the trithorax Group (trxG), responsible for maintaining gene expression patterns stably and heritably. Importantly, PcG and trxG proteins are evolutionary conserved and most of our knowledge about their function was pioneered from studies in Drosophila. Molecular analysis showed that many of the proteins encoded by the PcG and trxG act in large complexes, and modify the local properties of chromatin to maintain transcriptional repression (PcG) or activation (TrxG) of their target genes. My lecture will primarily focus on introducing epigenetics, transcriptional cellular memory and how they affect our development.