Science is not only provides a base for modern technology but it is also a part of human culture. It enriches the human civilization because of its intrinsic value. There is another aspect of culture which is concerned with cultural traits of society and its social evolution. Science has made tremendous contributions in the social evolution of humankind. In my talk, I want to explore this relationship between evolution of science and social evolution. After briefly discussing the contributions of Greeks to human civilization, passing through the era of contributions of Muslims; I come to 17th Century in which the foundations of modern science were laid. After discussing the two conceptual revolutions associated with the names of Maxwell and Darwin in the 19th Century, we come to 20th century; a century which has witnessed the best of science with two conceptual revolutions via special and general theories relativity and quantum mechanics, and discovery of structure of DNA. These discoveries laid a foundation of modern technology.
The Asian Tiger mosquito is generally associated with the spread of dengue fever; biting around the ankles and knees close to the ground in the daytime, rarely at night. Any source of stagnant water such as in the automobile tires, open containers, trash cans, holes in the tree trunks, broken vases, which gather rainwater, are an excellent breeding place for the tiger mosquito. The situation in Pakistan has deteriorated over the past years; solid steps are needed to bring hygiene conditions an integral part of our life styles. Vectors are breeding every where and so are the microorganisms. The entire picture is ultimately leading to the worst imaginable situation, where this year dengue, and in the years to come other dipterous related diseases will be there to welcome us. There is a dire need to make short and long term planning by including our environment as the major concerns of the future issues. Our research team, at the Department of Agro-entomology, has initiated work in this direction and we will be developing strategies to forecast the out breaks of mosquitoes and onset of disease. These steps will help in better management of mosquitoes through the development of potent plant extracts.
Nanotechnology research in Pakistan dates back to late 1990's and at the moment it is one of the hottest research topic in the country. A number of research groups in private and government sector holds promise to bring this futuristic but practical technology to Pakistan. Carbon based Nanotechnology research was initiated in PINSTECH in 1998 by accidental observation of carbon clusters in locally developed heavy ion accelerator. The research was accelerated in 2003 with the funding of Ministry of Science and Technology to make Pakistan's first research laboratory dedicated for carbon based nano-science and technology. In this introductory talk I will give a glimpse of indigenous research we are doing in PINSTECH that includes both experimental and computational areas. The aim of this talk is to prove that Pakistan is not so backward in this high-tech area and we would like to invite and promote youngsters to step into this new but developing area.
This talk will be focused on some of the scientific themes and applications in which electron energies reached for device or process operation are above that of the surrounding lattice or environment. Within the scope of the topic I will attempt to describe the vision of the global nanoscience community which is to 'exploit science in the nano-scale to inspire intelligent devices that can shape the future'. Freeman Dyson once said; "Technology is a gift of God. After the gift of life it is perhaps the greatest of God's gifts. It is the mother of civilizations, of arts and of sciences." With this in mind, I will also talk about what we can do to help take our ideas in the exploitation of knowledge to build good technologies for the future. Examples associated with the scale up of plasma technologies for the growth of carbon nanotube systems, use of organic nanocomposites for the production of solar cells and the novel processing routes of materials for display products and next generation transistors will be utilized. Novel Processes such as Ion beam lithography, Focused ion beams, Smart cut and Dual platform systems are versatile tools for nanoengineering and nanoscience applications and can be used to rapidly prototype and modify a diverse range of nano-devices and sensors. I will discuss the use of these systems for nanoengineeing and fabrication using examples from research.
The talk will be based on synthesis and applications of nanostructures in various areas like energy, photonics, and biology. With the tools available to fabricate devices from top down approach, it is utmost desire to develop techniques, which mimic nature, i.e., assemble atoms and molecules in a manner that these can be used for applications. A lot of effort is being carried out to control the growth of matter at nanoscale. The talk will cover fundamentals of self-assembly and then use of nanostructures/nanoparticles in a variety of devices.
In his address, the speaker Prof. Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy aptly explained the four greatest ideas in physics: relativity, quantum mechanics, electro-weak unification and the string theory. These ideas had changed the very face of twentieth century physics and taken mankind into more exciting nooks and corners of the known and the unknown universes. The content of the lecture was aimed for the lay masses, and therefore commanded a lot of eager interest from people of all backgrounds. The lecture was followed by an active question and answer session, lasting another thirty minutes.
Since the fabrication of transistor and IC's, nanotechnology is bringing yet another revolution in science and technology. This revolution bridges over different disciplines such as chemistry, physics and biology. The present talk is divided into two parts: the first one will present an overview of nanotechnology and the second part will include a discussion of the growth of nano crystals/structures using Buffer Layer Assisted technique.