Khwarizmi Science Society proudly announcess the Galileo Workshop and prize distribution ceremony on October 22nd, 2013. The aim of the workshop is to teach the teachers of different schools about the assembling of Galileoscopes and to guide them about the observations of the Celestial objects that they can see from the Galileoscope. We have selected 23 institutions from all over Pakistan. The workshop is compulsory for the representatives of these institutions.
The workshop consists of two sessions; First session will include a lecture on assembling the Galileoscope and then participants would be ask to perform the same assembling task. While a lecture on Introduction to Astronomy and how to use Galileoscope for the Celestial objects will also be given. The second session will include the Prize Distribution Ceremony of the Galileoscopes.
For dirrections see map below.
Powder X-Ray Diffraction is now a common technique used in the structure determination of different crystals. Read this Article on the Workshop on structure determination using powder X-ray diffraction.
Nanotechnology is design, fabrication and application of nanostructures or nanoparticles, and the fundamental understanding of the relationships between physical properties or phenomena and material dimensions. Nanotechnology is a new field or a new scientific domain, dealing with materials or structures in nanometer scales, typically ranging from sub-nanometers to several hundred nanometers. Nanotechnology also promises the possibility of giving non-conventional properties. Yet another very important aspect of nanotechnology is the miniaturization of current and new instruments, sensors and machines that will greatly impact the world we live in. Examples of possible miniaturization are: biosensors that warn us at the early stage of the onset of disease and preferably at the molecular level and target specific drugs that automatically attack the diseased cells on site, nanorobots that can repair internal damage and remove chemical toxins in human bodies, and nanoscaled electronics that constantly monitor our local environment. Synthesis and processing of nanostructures and nanoparticles are the essential aspect of nanotechnology. Studies on new physical properties and applications of nanostructures and nanoparticles are possible only when these materials are made available with desired size, morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition. The research on nanotechnology is evolving and expanding very rapidly. This workshop will focus primarily on synthesis of inorganic materials. The aim is to summarize the fundamentals and established techniques of synthesis and processing of inorganic nanostructures and nanoparticles so as to provide the audience with a systematic and coherent picture about synthesis and processing of nanomaterials. In addition, a small part of the talk will be devoted to characterization, properties and applications of nanomaterials and nanostructures. This presentation would serve as a general introduction to people just entering the field, and also for experts seeking for information in other subfields.
The assumption that all engineering system modeling can be reduced to exact set of differential equations has been challenged by research that recognizes that process modeling and control can never be exact for real processes. There is a necessity for advanced control techniques that can
- Manage Uncertain Environment
- Incorporate techniques for learning uncertain information
Over the last few years the application of Artificial Intelligence techniques has become a major research topic in process control. AI techniques allow obtaining efficient controllers that utilize human experience in more related form than mathematical approach. Fuzzy Logic (FL) is the main topic of this new field known as Expert Control. It provides an effective framework for dealing with uncertain and vague environment. It uses Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs) to implement an operator approximate reasoning process in the selection of control process. According to a survey 6 of every 10 Americans use a device that employ FLC in some form. In Japan, Fuzzy Logic has been used to control under ground railway systems. FLC are also being used extensively in consumer electronics like Air conditioners, Microwave ovens, Cameras etc.
These independent workshops primarily covered the first year basic electrical engineering course.
It was divided into two phases: (a) schematics and (b) analysis. The following active components were discussed:
- sine voltage and current sources,
- piecewise voltage and current sources,
- pulse voltage and current sources and exponential current and voltage sources.
In this workshop the students were also taught to design half wave and full wave sinusoidal rectifiers, clippers, clampers and peak rectifier circuits. It was explained that how to get parts, wire the circuit and place the markers. Then how to use VSIN and PWL VOLTAGE sources, VPULSE source, VOFF attributes of the sources. A circuit for different values of R and L simultaneously was simulated and described the advantages of using simulation software were also explained. Students were also invited to design their own circuits and simulate them to get results on the probe.
The same workshop was repeated on request on the 1st and 2nd of December and was an enhanced version of the first workshop.